Tuesday, December 22, 2009

cbse cce new steps

Frequently Asked Questions


Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE)
Gratitude to CBSE
A. CCE Scheme

1. Does CCE mean frequent tests and assignments?

The term continuous in CCE refers to periodicity and regularity in assessment. It

does not mean that tests and assignments have to be conducted or given frequently.

On the contrary, the scheme of CCE discourages mechanical testing. It envisages

employment of variety of tools and techniques for assessment in informal and formal

settings which are more interesting, relevant and meaningful and involve learners for

greater participation and learning.

2. How would CCE help in reducing stress of students?

CCE helps in reducing stress of students by –

• Identifying learning progress of students at regular time intervals on small

portions of content.

• Employing a variety of remedial measures of teaching based on learning needs

and potential of different students.

• Desisting from using negative comments on the learner’s performance.

• Encouraging learning through employment of a variety of teaching aids and


• Involving learners actively in the learning process.

• Recognizing and encouraging specific abilities of students, who do not excel in

academics but perform well in other co-curricular areas.

3. Is it all right for my child to spend more time on dance, music and doing

project work than actually reading his textbooks?

Holistic education demands development of all aspects of individual’s personality

including cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains. It is unfortunate that not

much attention and emphasis is given to the development of interests, hobbies and

passions of learners. Focusing on excellence in academics alone undoubtedly results

in lop-sided development of personality. It is thus essential that due importance be

given to participation in co-curricular activities like music/ dance, art, dramatics and

other areas of ones interests. This is likely to make life more fulfilling and enjoying.

4. Is it necessary to mention ailments that my child is suffering on the CCE

report card?

Healthy body is essential for the healthy growth of mind. Hence the schools are

expected to get their students examined by qualified doctors twice in a session (July

and January). In addition to this general information, physical disabilities and

diseases such as defective vision, maintenance of teeth, deafness, long absence due to

illness etc. should also be noted. The schools are being advised to bring any major

observation to the notice of parents for proper medication and care of the child.

5. There are usually forty students in a section. Will it be possible for a single teacher

to assess all the students meaningfully and objectively in a given time frame

particularly in co - scholastic areas?

The Board has developed detailed guidelines for assessment in co-scholastic areas.

Tools and techniques for assessment in these areas have been included in these

guidelines. Besides, the Board is organizing series of training programmes in different

parts of the country to familiarize teachers in related matters. However schools and

teachers themselves also will have to design strategies to meet the emerging challenges.

It has been suggested that assessment in co- scholastic areas may be done by a team of

teachers in order to minimize subjectivity.

6. If a teacher has to maintain exhaustive records, how many number of teachers

per class are required for this purpose?

Overall records will be maintained by the class teacher and subject wise records will

be maintained by respective subject teachers as per past practice. However, all other

teachers will be associated with assessment in scholastic and particularly in coscholastic

areas. A detailed strategy for keeping such records systematically will

have to be worked out by individual schools. Some guidelines are given in Teachers’


7. The concept of Board being made optional still not clear?

It is suggested to go through the recent circular no. 39 and 40 issued by the Board

in this regard. These circulars explain the proposed examination reforms very

clearly and include the details of the new scheme and the meaning of making

Board’s examination optional. The circulars are also available on CBSE website


8. When there are so many co-curricular activities to be done during the year,

will the existing syllabus in different subjects be reduced?

Not presently or immediately. The matter may be considered after the

implementation of the scheme and getting feedback from the system.

B. Academics

1. How would CCE help in improvement of student’s performance?

CCE helps in improving student’s performance by identifying his/her learning

difficulties at regular time intervals right from the beginning of the academic session

and employing suitable remedial measures for enhancing their learning performance.

2. Different schools follow different academic sessions. Will CCE allow enough

flexibility to schools to plan their own academic sessions?

The scheme of continuous and comprehensive evaluation has inbuilt flexibility for

schools to plan their own academic schedules as per specified guidelines on CCE.

However, the schools may have to make slight modifications in existing schools.

3. It is observed that sometimes the projects are bought from the market and

submitted for assessment. Is there any check on such unfair practices?

“What I hear, I forget.

“What I see, I remember

“What I do, I understand” - Kung Fu Tzu (Confucius)

The purpose of Project Work is to enable the learners to apply and extend classroom

learning to life outside the school. The Board is proposing and promoting group

project work. Every individual is required to contribute to the completion of the

project and may be awarded marks/ grades in proportion to their contribution.

However it is essential that in order to make project work meaningful and learningoriented,

the identification and selection of project work may be done with utmost

care. Sufficient required guidance may be provided to the group or individual for

carrying out the project effectively. Suitable timeframe may also be decided in

advance for its completion. The subject teacher may ensure and certify that the project

has been completed by the group or the individual as desired. Preferring group

projects over individual projects will also promote social skills and lessen teacher’s

correction work load.

4. With Class X Board examinations made optional, should I still buy more

reference books for my child in Mathematics and Science and practice books in

English? Should I hire tutors for him?

Making Class X Board Examination optional in no way means dilution of emphasis

on Academics. In classes IX and X, the Board has prescribed NCERT/ CBSE

textbooks in various subjects. Besides these textbooks, the teachers also assign

various kinds of assignments to students which require consulting additional

materials given in reference books, articles, and internet websites etc. It is suggested

to encourage your child to inculcate the habit of self learning with understanding.

Selection of additional learning material has to be done very carefully.

5. Will CCE help my child to choose subjects of his choice in class XI?

The CBSE plans to offer an aptitude test for classes IX and X from 2010. The first

test will be available by February 2010. By the time a student reaches Class XI, he

/she would have undertaken the aptitude test twice once at the end of class IX and

then at the end of class X. This together with academic performance and CCE would

help students/ parents and teachers to judge their level of understanding in each

subject and help them choose subjects for class XI. The schools have been advised to

follow multi pronged approach for assigning subjects. Aptitude test, scholastic

performance, co-scholastic achievements, all need to be given weight age. Students

of the same school will be given preference over the students coming from any other

school for admission in class XI.

6. Different schools have varying academic standards. How will the Board be able

to maintain parity of standards among its affiliated schools in urban and

rural areas, or schools located in metro cities and those located in remote or

backward parts of the country when school based assessment in Class x is


In order to maintain parity of standards among its affiliated schools, the Board has

initiated following steps:

a. Developing Question Banks in different subjects. These will be made

available to all schools. Every school will be required to generate its own

Question Paper selecting questions from the given question bank. This will

be ensuring parity of standards.

b. Conducting intensive mass training programmes for Principals and teachers

of its affiliated schools all across the country.

c. Developing and making available CCE guidelines and subject specific

guidelines for schools.

7. Will CCE help my child to get through competitive tests after Class XII?

Scheme of CCE is expected to help the child make informed choice of subjects in

class XI based on his aptitude, interests, liking, and academic performance. With

CCE aiming at all round development of the child’s personality it is expected that a

student will be able to take up competitive examinations in right earnest. It may be

clearly understood that introduction of CCE does not mean less emphasis on

academic attainment. Students will still be required to do well in studies. However

due to acquisition of additional life skills, like thinking and emotional skills, they are

expected to meet different life situations with greater maturity.

8. (a) When will the syllabus for Class IX summative and formative test

be sent to the schools?

(b) Is CBSE going to specify the period limit for each co-scholastic area?

(a) The syllabus for class IX for summative assessment for the ongoing session will be

made available to schools through CBSE website within a week’s time. There is no

separate syllabus for formative assessment. It has to be suitably decided by individual

schools dividing the prescribed syllabus into parts as per convenience.

(b) The schools will be required to decide the time needed for

carrying out different activities related to co-scholastic areas as per the requirements

of the report card and CCE card. Many of these co-curricular activities are already

being carried out in majority of schools.

9. Will the Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation card help me to get through

Competitive examination after class XII?

Please understand clearly that participation in co- curricular activities and developing

essential life – skills does not mean that you have not to put in your best for attainment

in academics. In order to perform better in various competitive examination after class

XII, one is required to have sound understanding and foundation of basic concepts learnt

in class IX and X. Acquisition of life- skills like communication skills, thinking skills,

social skills and emotional skills will certainly enhance your understanding and

performance in competitive examination as well as in later life.

C. Examination

1. Usually while appearing for the Board examinations, the students get a feel that

they are doing something big. They get serious in preparing for the Boards, in

solving sample question papers, or reading more books for reference. Will that

seriousness remain if Class X Board examinations are made optional and CCE

is introduced?

The Board has brought out subject specific detailed guidelines on formative and

summative evaluation which will engage a student through out the academic session

doing variety of meaningful, creative and relevant learning activities. The schools

will be required to use question banks prepared by the Board for Summative

Assessment. It will certainly include questions on testing of higher mental abilities of

learners. This would necessitate using reference materials and making thorough

preparations and getting immediate feedback on his performance through selfassessment

or by peers and teachers.

2. If formative assessment helps teachers to identify learning difficulties of students

then why should it form part of the student’s evaluation when learning is still in

formative stage?

The National Policy on Education (1986) emphasizes that at school level, evaluation

should be formative or developmental in nature. At this stage, the child is in formative

stage of learning. She/ he wants to discuss and clarify many doubts for better

conceptual clarity. Unless we assess learner’s efforts, performance, attitudes to

learning and abilities to apply what is learned in every day situations, we may not be

able to help him/ her in improving his/her learning. Hence through formative

assessment, causes of poor performance are diagnosed using diagnostic tests and

promptly remediated by giving interventions followed by retesting.

3. Will my child get CCE certificate even if he does not clear the examinations?

All those regular students of the Board’s affiliated schools who have undergone a

course of study in the 9th and 10th classes shall be issued this certificate with effect

from March 2011 examination.

4. How much marks should a child score for being promoted to next higher class?

Is there any provision for compartmental examination?

A student will be declared having passed in Class IX/ X, if he/ she get a grade higher

than E1 in all the subjects of scholastic area. Existing provisions for improvement

and compartment will continue to be followed.

5. When will a student be filling up self-awareness section in the CCE report card?

This is the only section in CCE certificate that has to be filled in by a student towards

the end of academic session of Class X. However, it is very important that a student

realizes his goals and strengths right from the beginning. The teachers will be helping

the students to understand the meaning and importance of this section. Ample

opportunities are provided to him for realization of goals and understanding of self.

6. What does percentile rank depict in the CCE card?

Students’ achievement on scholastic aspects can be measured in terms of three


 With reference to current status of his progress by identifying learning

gaps and improving performance through remediation.

 With reference to the expected levels of learning.

 With reference to his current status vis-à-vis peer groups (percentile


A percentile rank identifies the percentage of students/ peer group that a student score

has surpassed. For example a student has a test score of 66 and a percentile rank of

70 in his class. That means that a score of 66 is higher than 70% of the students in

one’s class.

7. Students scoring 71, 75 or 79 marks will be awarded the same grade. Is it

justified? In what ways are grades better than marks?

Awarding of grades has number of advantages over awarding of numerical marks. It

considerably reduces inter and intra examiner variability in marking. It also takes care

of imperfection of tools used for assessment. Statistical research in assessment

techniques indicates that there is a possibility of variation of scores awarded to

individuals to the extent of 5% to 15%. Putting students of similar potential in same

ability bands (grades) automatically takes care of all these abbreviations in assessment

techniques. Lastly, it will reduce undesired and unsound comparison of small

difference of marks.

8. For senior secondary schools, will the CBSE provide question papers for

internal assessment in classes X and XI?

The scheme of internal assessment in Mathematics, Science and Social science is

being reshaped into formative assessment form. The detailed guidelines are being

made available to schools shortly. There is no such provision for internal

assessment in class XI.

9. Are we going to handover the answer scripts of summative exam to the child?

Schools are advised to show the answer sheet to the students for their benefit and

satisfaction. However, they may take it back for maintaining a record for sometime.

10. I guess there are going to be no marks in decimals i.e. 90.2, 90.6. etc. Where do

we put such students? A core group must be formed to handle the CCE

practical problems and someone must be easily accessible?

It is advisable not to award marks in decimals so that such technical problems in

awarding grades do not arise. In case such a situation arises, usual accepted norms of

rounding of the decimals may be applied i.e. counting upto 0.49 as 0 and from 0.5 to

0.99 as 1 will be allowed.

Your suggestion in forming a core group to handle tricky and technical matters is

quite good. A small core group has already been formed which is working on all

matters related to CCE. The Board is also providing helpline to sort out queries and

clarifications related to different aspects of effective implementation of the new


11. Alongwith Formative and Summative evaluation, due importance is to be

accorded to diagnostic evaluation too?

Formative assessment itself leads to identifying and diagnosing the areas of

learning difficulties of students and providing remedial interventions.

12. Percentile rank reflected in the CCE report card. Is it at the school level?

Yes, it is at the school level. Provision is also being made to provide percentile rank

in the Board examination, on demand.

13. Some aspects of descriptive indicators for co-scholastic areas?

The descriptive indicators for assessment in co-scholastic areas have been included

in Teacher’s Manual which is being made available to all the schools.

14. Can the school make proficiency test compulsory for all the students? Do they

need to pay extra for that?

It is advised that the parents should be made aware of having full faith in the

quality and standard in school based assessment. There is no need of school

making the proficiency test compulsory for the students.

15. The beauty of formative assessment is that it creates a scope for the learner to

improve- that is basically the point of change?

It is a good observation. Formative Assessment is also meant for identifying areas

of learning difficulty of students, providing remedial interventions resulting in the

improvement in learning.

16. How to bridge the gap between school and Board pattern of marking of answer


The marking of answer sheets in Board examination is done in a systematic manner

using a well design marking scheme which indicates the allocation of marks for

different value points in an answer. In case of all summative assessments at school

level, the marking scheme will be provided by the Board.

17. Attitude towards teachers- the descriptive indicator of assessment for attitudes

stating the desired behaviour of the student as ‘most of the time’ ? will that

encourage psychofancy or genuine obedience?

Interpersonal relationships and behaviour of a person is an important soft skill

which needs to be developed in the students during formative years. A very

purpose of keeping the assessment of attitudes and values in the scheme of CCE is

to help the students have an integrated and balanced personality. It is desired on the

part of school to inculcate a genuine self discipline in the students by creating

congenial conditions and conducive environment for the same.

18. Uniform absolute grading for all the subjects does not take care of inter –

disciplinary differences, for example – Mathematics and Languages etc.

It is easier to understand by all stakeholders.

19. What if a child falls sick during summative examination? Will he or she be

tested again?

Yes, it is mandatory for the students to appear in the summative examination.

However, the timings and procedure for re-assessment may be decided at school


20. Does summative assessment II include the syllabus for the whole year?

No, the syllabus for summative assessment II include only those topics which have

been taught during the term II i.e. the topics taught after summative assessment I.

21. Teachers are generally observed to favour students who perform better in

academics. Wil it not result in such students getting better grade in co-scholastic

areas also without having similar proficiency in the same?

Teachers will be required to mention descriptive indicators and give justification for

having given a specific grade to any student. The tools and techniques for assessment

in co-scholastic areas require team assessment instead of individual teacher assessing

a student. This will minimize the subjectivity. The Board is also organizing training

programme for teachers to discuss all related matters.

22. Will the marking of answer sheets at school level be as objective and impartial as

in Board’s examination?

Your own school teachers have been marking the answer sheets of different

examinations throughout your stay in the school. Why to doubt in their ability or

integrity in marking of answer sheets in classes IX and X? In case of any doubt, you

may ask the school authorities to show the answer sheets and its marking. In fact, it is

an additional advantage in school based assessment.

23. When class X examinations going to be school based under CBSE pattern, will

my performance or certificate be consider at per with certificate or marks issued

by any other Board in the country?

Every school is required to generate a question paper using questions made available

by CBSE through a question bank in every subject. The quality and standard of

academic level of these assessment tools gets automatically taken care of. Moreover,

the certificate issued by the school will be properly authenticated by the Board. Thus ,

there no reason why the marks or certificate issued by the school will not be

considered comparable to similar document issued by any other Board.

D. Implementation

1. During Board examinations, the teachers become serious teaching with more

responsibility and accountability? Will that seriousness remain if Class X Board

examinations are made optional and CCE is introduced?

With the fear of external examinations, the teachers and students are under constant

threat to cover syllabus. As a result many important aspects of learning such as

conducting practical and organizing field trips and ways of learning such as reference

work, project work and presentations are not fully utilized to the detriment of overall


Now with that pressure removed, the teachers will be able to design a wide range of

creative activities for enrichment and extension of learning. They will prepare

assignments that would not only help the child in better understanding of concepts but

also promote higher levels of learning through logical and critical thinking and problem

solving. The Board has also issued subject specific guidelines which will help teachers

to design their own academic calendar encompassing all such activities.

2. Do you think our teachers are professionally qualified and specially trained to

take up life skills education?

Life Skills Education was introduced by the Board in classes VI to VIII with effect

from 2003 in Class VI. It was then extended to next higher classes VII and VIII in the

subsequent years. Thus it is not a totally new concept. The Board has now planned series

of training programmes for teachers and principals all over the country to help them

understand and implement the concept.

3. How to address the student teacher ratio?

Yes, it is one of the challenges to be faced by all of us in relation to providing active

learning experiences as well as assessing the students. However, suitable strategies can

be designed by discussing the issue in advance at local level and finding out ways and

means as to how best the desired objectives can be achieved within the given

parameters and constraints. Promotion of group activities can be one of the methods of

taking care of large numbers.

4. How to assess the validity and reliability of CCE report card of a new

admission case?

The scheme of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation envisages greater

autonomy as well as greater responsibility to the schools. It also demands greater

objectivity in awarding marks and grades to the students. The Board will be making a

question bank available to the schools for generating question paper in every subject.

Marking scheme will also be provided by the Board. This will take care of quality and

standard. Detailed guidelines are also being made available to schools for assessment in

co-scholastic areas. There is no reason why the validity and reliability of CCE report

card should be doubted under such conditions.

5. What is the criteria for online examination?

The details for online examination are being worked out and will be made available to

schools shortly. It will depend on students choice and availability of infrastructure.

6. If my teacher takes a dislike to me, shall I be able to get good score or grade?

Teachers are well wishers of students. You should have full confidence in your potential

and behaviour as well as in the attitude of teachers towards you. Connecting well to your

class water as well as your teachers may be given due place in establishing social

relationship. There is no reason why any teacher should dislike you. These matters

related to objective school based assessment are also being discussed separately during

training programme of teacher and Principals.

E. General

1. Will I be continually informed of my child’s performance and progress in studies?

Parents are active partners with schools in realizing the true potential of their

children. Though formal reporting of students’ performance is done twice during an

academic session, CCE provides for regular interaction with parents through parents

teachers meetings (PTMs) etc.

2. In my child’s school, teachers select only those students for dance, music and

arts competitions who have been participating in such competitions earlier and won

prizes giving no chance to new students. My child never gets an opportunity to

perform in all such activities. How will my child be ever rated in all those activities?

As specified in Chapter 3 of the CCE guidelines on ‘Assessing Co-Scholastic Areas’,

the scheme of CCE not only provides necessary feedback on the acquired levels of

learning in scholastic areas, but also lays equal emphasis on proficiency of learners in

the acquisition of essential life skills, attitudes and values, interests and achievement

in various co-curricular activities. The schools have been directed to provide every

student with ample opportunities to participate in various co-curricular programmes

of their interests organized at various levels i.e. at the levels of section, class, house,

school, and inter school, etc.

3. In my child’s school, the class teacher does not like my child. Will that affect my

child’s assessment?

Evaluating on scholastic and co-scholastic aspects is not done by a single teacher but

by a team of teachers teaching students based on test scores, participation in different

activities, observation findings etc. Hence chances of biased assessment are


4. Will that increase burden on my child to continuously show his performance in

tests and activities. Would not that stifle his creativity and urge to be what he

wants to be?

Through a well designed scheme of continuous and comprehensive evaluation, a

student will get ample opportunities to improve his/her performance in scholastic and

non-scholastic areas and to express his/ her creativity in areas of own interest. By

pursuing subjects of his/her choice and applying learning to daily life situations and

pursuing hobbies of one’s choice, his/her urge to identify and realize ones latent

talents will be fulfilled and help him to be his true self.

5. What does the Board expect from the parents so that it benefits their children to

maximum extent?

The parents are expected to go through the philosophy of the scheme of CCE and

support the teachers in all programmes and activities of the school for balanced

personality development of their ward. Parents also need to encourage and motivate

their students to take active part in different activities.

6. Will there be any counseling sessions for parents also?

The CBSE has been holding interactive sessions with different stakeholders. The

schools have been advised to hold counseling sessions for parents on different

aspects of the scheme of CCE. Board has also provided a helpline for clarification on

all related matters.

7. Where can the parents report against the school not following CCE in true


The parents can write to the CBSE’s concerned Regional Officer. They can also make

use of the online facility available on the Board’s website to interact with the Chairman

on this matter.

8. CCE card includes variety of co-scholastic areas and activities. It will require

significant percentage of school time schedule to organize activities. Will it not result

in reduction of time for teaching different subjects?

Schools have already been organizing different activities to promote variety of skills in

students within the given school time schedule. With the implementation of the scheme

of CCE, they will simply have to redesign the existing models to meet the requirements

with greater focus and attention to desired and specific areas.

9. CCE card in class IX not given?

CCE card is a combined card meant for classes IX and X reflecting the performance

and achievement of the learner in scholastic and co-scholastic areas. A copy of the

Report Card of present class IX class has already been given or being made available.

Format of the card is also available on CBSE website.

10. Schools where all the streams are not offered in class XI, like if a school doesn’t

have humanity stream, how a student wanting to offer these subjects can be


Either the school can offer these additional subjects in class XI, or with the CCE

Card the, students can take admission in any other CBSE affiliated school.

11. When a student goes from class IX to X from one region to another region,

which regional officer/principal will sign the cards?

Obviously class IX report card will be signed by the first school Principal. Class IX

report card is not to be signed by the regional officer. However, class X CCE card

will be signed by the regional officer of the region in which the second school is


12. The child wants to stay in the same school but still wants to take his online

examination? His parents have a transferable job. Which exam will he be


It is advised for him to take school based examination which will be duly

authenticated by the Board. Directives will be issued to affiliated schools to accept

all such school based assessment certificates for all purposes including admission in

another school.

13. Can the students access CBSE website for question bank?

Initially, a question bank in every subject is being designed and made available to

schools only for generating the question paper for summative assessment in March

2010 class IX exam.

14. In a Formative assessment in the form of paper-pencil test, the students are to

be given their answer sheets after marking. Should these answer sheets

indicate marks or grades?

Since the teachers will be using different tools and techniques for Formative

assessment, it is advisable to award marks on the answer sheets initially. The marks

given in the assessment through different techniques can be added and converted

into grades. It may not be so easy to award grades for different assessments and

calculate the average grade.

15. Will the Board be providing stationery for class IX report cards?

Not for class IX. The Board has designed the sample report card which is being

made available to all the schools for use at their end. It is also available on CBSE


Thursday, May 7, 2009

Grade X: Revised Portion for Board Exam-2010

On the basis of last year's revision 8 marks allocated to Disaster Management were reallocated to the other components of History, Geography, Political Science and Economics making the Unit totals as 22,22,18,18 marks respectively.
In continuation of these changes keeping in view the recommendations contained in NCF 2005 to give equal weight age to the four components of History, Geography, Political Science and Economics, the marks have been further revised as –
Unit 1: India and the Contemporary World II (History) 20 Marks
Unit 2: India – Resources and their Development (Geography) 20 Marks
Unit 3: Democratic Politics II (Political Science) 20 Marks
Unit 4: Understanding Economic Development (Economics) 20 Marks
Accordingly the syllabus for Social Science has been updated as follows which will be effective from the Board’s examination 2010 onwards.
In Unit 1: India and the Contemporary World II, the students will exercise their option of choice among the prescribed themes in the following manner:-
Sub-Unit 1.1 – Events and Processes
Theme 1: Nationalism in Europe
Theme 2: Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
Theme 3: Nationalism in India
(Any one theme out of themes 1 and 2. Theme 3 is compulsory)
Sub-Unit 1.2 – Economies and Livelihood
Theme 4: Industrialization 1850s – 1950s
Theme 5: Urbanization and Urban Lives
Theme 6: Trade and Globalization
(Any one theme out of themes 4,5 and 6)
Sub-Unit 1.3 – Culture, Identity and Society
Theme 7: Print culture and nationalism
Theme 8: History of the novel
(Any one theme out of themes 7 and 8)
Hence, the students will be required to study four themes in Unit 1 (History) India and the Contemporary World II.
In Unit 2 (Geography), India – Resources and their development, class X, the topic on ‘Forest and Wild life Resources’ has been included for the Board Examination, 2010 and onwards and the sub-topics given in Chapter 4 of the NCERT’s Geography text book - Contemporary India Part II, namely Food Security (Page 44) and Impact of Globalization on Agriculture (Page 46) will remain deleted. The syllabus in the remaining three components remains the same. Also disaster management continues to be evaluated through projects and assignments only. Sample question papers based on the revised pattern will be soon uploaded on the Board’s website


Understanding Stress: Common reactions

Common Physical reactions:

v Muscle tension
v Indigestion
v Sleep difficulties
v Rapid uneven or pounding heartbeat
v Frequent urge to pass urine
v Fast, shallow breathing
v Chest discomfort
v Change in appetite, constipation or diarrhea
v Change in appetite, constipation or diarrhea
v Backache/headache
v Cramps

Common Psychological reactions:

v Feeling under pressure, frustration and aggression
v Feeling tense and unable to relax
v Feeling mentally drained out
v Fussy, gloomy or suspicious, being constantly frightened or irritable
v Inability to concentrate or complete the task.

Stress Management: The Physical approach:

(A) Eating healthy:

v Balancing food choices over time is what counts.
v Breakfast provides the energy needed through an active morning.
v Children who skip breakfast may have trouble concentrating.
v Fast foods supply more fat, salt & calories than good nutrition.
v Fast foods in moderation won’t ruin a healthful diet, especially when consumed with green salads.
v Replace finger chips with an apple.
v Add roughage to your diet – Dalia, Corn etc. will help prevent stomach discomfort and you will feel lighter.
v The golden rule for food safety is to keep hot foods hot & cold foods cold.
v Parents should teach good habits by example.

(B) Good Sleep

v Insomnia (the inability to fall or stay asleep) can be caused by stress & anxiety of Exam.
v Disturbances of sleep wake cycle during exams.
v If sleep struggles continue, talk them over with your doctor.

(C) Physical activity and Yoga

v Exercise: planned & structured subset of leisure time physical activity undertaken for improving or maintaining physical fitness.

v Physical fitness: includes cardio-respiratory fitness, muscle strength, body composition and flexibility.

v Sport: any choice of outdoor game for a brief period. For example badminton, squash, tennis, etc.

The Psychological approach:

Stress can lead to both anxiety & depression. However, some amount of anxiety is imperative for good performance.
Increased disinterest in studies.
Seeing more TV, sleeping more
Irritable/ crying / cranky
Nervous and irritable
Feelings of frustration and aggression
Preoccupied, absent minded
Symptoms like headaches, fainting spells, vomiting
Wanting to be alone
Major changes in eating or sleeping habits
Lack of attention and concentration
Inability to complete tasks or make study plans
Staying out longer, stop communicating with their parents and have health problems.

Make realistic study plans
Assess priorities, assets and difficulties
Follow a normalized routine atmosphere at home should be recommended.
To take frequent breaks.
Not to strip off TV or entertainment and outings.
Feel comfortable about oneself.
That imagining extreme consequences and worst situations is of no use and needs to be discouraged.
It is helpful to make the student see what he can accomplish in the remaining time is not negligible.
Constant encouragement and reassurance is essential from all significant members in the school and family.
It is important that the student is clear about how to take the examination, how to tackle questions and how to manage time.
Students tend to magnify failures and try to talk to them out of it. They should not demean themselves, manage time.
Advise them to contact the teachers or counselors if they feel low or anxious or disinterested in studies.

2. Psychosomatic Symptoms

These refer to physical symptoms that the student shows but there is no biological basis for them and the root cause is in psychological factors. The counselor needs to first look for biological causes of any symptom, only when they are eliminated should the symptoms be considered as psychosomatic.
v Nagging headaches
v Backache
v Fainting spells.
v Diarrhea/gastric trouble
v Asthmatic attacks
v Breathlessness
v Vomiting
v Feeling tensed and unable to relax
v Writing camps bloomed or
v Absent vision

The counselor needs to help students to see the mind body connection and understand how the anxiety is manifesting in pain.
The counselor needs to help the student to develop alternative coping strategies and thus defocus from the pain.


Do not deny the symptoms with statement like “ you don’t have any physical problem” or “stop using this as an excuse”. Usually the student is genuinely in trouble and is not pretending pain.
Do not encourage symptoms by repeatedly enquiring about them or suggesting remedies for the pain.

3. High risk Behavior: Drug abuse, self harm, aggression
Basic Features

It is behavior that is potentially harmful to self or others.
Behavior relating to consumption and abuse of psychotropic drugs or commonly used medicines like cough syrups, sleeping pills, painkillers, without prescription.
Behavior related to smoking and consumption of alcohol. Self-harming behavior like Suicide, Wrist slashing, Hitting self, Starving deliberately etc.
Harm to others in the form of abusive and aggressive behavior like rash driving or violence to others in any form.
No medication for High performance.

Dos & Don’ts

v Discourage the behavior.
v Keep communication channels open
v Talk about the negative and long-term effects.
v Teach (quick) relaxation/breathing
v Teach anger management
v Teach to evaluation consequences.
v Talk about the need for sharing this information with parents/teachers.
v Make the child understand that monitoring by parents or counselors is essential for early recovery.

v Do no prescribe medication.
v Do not punish or reprimand harshly.
v Do not moralize or made person feel guilty. Help him to think of it as a problem needing help.
v Assertively say ‘No’ to student’s demands for taking drugs like cough syrup, pills etc. to relieve anxiety or improve concentration. Even short-term, temporary relief with the help of these drugs should be highly discouraged.

Handling Suicide

The student who is calling is seriously considering you as the last resort and hence it is important to be careful and helpful. A lot many suicides are impulsive while others are well planned. Impulsive students are likely to decide on the spur of the moment. Hence it is important to buy time.
Indicators for increased chance for suicide

Withdrawal behavior for few days
Mention of suicide repeatedly.
Suicide note
Disinterest in studies.
Changes in eating and sleeping patterns
A history of serious psychological problems.
A history of impulsive, poorly controlled and destructive behavior.
A history of continuing academic problems and learning difficulties.
Adjustment difficulties with family, school, peers etc.

Periodically, keeping in touch over the phone will reduce the intent of ending their lives. Counseling needs to be practical and useful.
Long lectures with a moralistic tone are not advised. These make the already depressed student guiltier and his intent stronger.
The student should be advised to contact a professional counselor as soon as possible. If not efforts should be made to encourage him to meet his teachers or school counselors or talk to his parents. The more he talks about his problems to various people, he is likely to feel much better.
A student who is severely depressed and expresses absolute helplessness about future is more at risk than a student who talks about casual things.
No medicines should be prescribed over the phone.

5. Must Dos for students: For improved concentration, motivation, work blocks

v Know your concentration span, study with breaks.
v Work out best time for concentration.
v Group study for difficult subjects.
v Do not let previous results discourage you – identify your weak areas from previous exams. And work on them.
v Time management plan must be made for all subjects.
v Choose a study place with minimum distractions and autosuggest to your self about your resolution.
v Try to coincide study time with the time, you would be giving an exam.
v In case of average achievers, master what you know and are comfortable with.
v For low achievers, master the essential information first.
v Prioritize the workload. Give your best concentration time to the toughest subject.
v Repeat your learnt work so the recall in exam is easy. Work not repeated or revised is easily forgotten.
v Try to plan your revision time by drawing up a timetable. Build in time for the things you enjoy – like watching you favorite TV programme, going out with your friends, or going to play football in the park.
v Give yourself a few treats – pamper yourself with a long hot bath, or listen to your favorite CD for an hour after you have finished your revision.
v Relax with what you know before entering the exam hall.
v Do not get anxious about the result – cross that bridge when you come to it…options await.

Must Dos for parents

v Student can fail to do well if they fail to cope with stress. Parents should guide their children in planning, organizing and setting a timetable.
v To avoid a stress situation for the child the parents must provide right kind of motivation and a conducive environment.
v Help the child to develop self-discipline self-direction, self-confidence and a sense of achievement.
v Just good schooling and tuition are not substitutes for emotional cushioning.
v Help the child in maintaining his confidence especially when he seems discouraged by his dropping marks or grades. Do not displace your anxiety on the child.
v The achievement goals should be realistically set according to the child’s capability.
v Do no mix academic issues with family conflicts.
v Praise your child when he does well. Encourage the child’s performance with positive statements like, “well done”, “you can do better”, rather than saying “that was not enough”.
v Work out your child’s schedule with him instead of nagging him. There could be learning problems.
v Do not harp on previous failures or results.
v Under achievement may be due to some children believing it is safer not to try than to try and fail.
v If achievement expectations are too high then some children would prefer to be criticized for being lazy than being considered not good enough.
v Humor relieves tension. Be light and humorous with the child.
v Try to gain your child’s confidence and discuss his problems with him. Help him to find a solution.
v Exams are not the end of the world.
v Accept that expectation for every one to do well is unrealistic, as many won’t pursue this for long.


n How do I deal with exam related stress?
Recognize your negative thoughts. Once you closely examine these thoughts you'll see how unrealistic they are. Challenge the thoughts that say you are a failure and that you can't succeed. Remind yourself that it was just another exam and with effort, you will do better in your next attempt.

n What if I do badly?
Replace self-criticism with self-correction. Judging yourself harshly now won't help you do better in the future. Take the position of an observer. What if a good friend told you he had failed? Would you call him a failure? Most probably you would emphasize his good points and help him put the situation in perspective.

n How do I deal with my family's disappointment if my results are not good?
Be open and honest with them. Share what you feel about the result and what you think went wrong. Reassure them of your concern and efforts. Above all, do not have a negative bias against your parents because sometimes they need more reassuring than you do.

n What if I don't get the marks I'm expecting?
Concentrate on your achievements and be realistic about your expectations as well. Usually we know when we have made a mistake, so take these into account while drawing up expected marks. If you are still dissatisfied with the results, the option of rechecking is always open.

n We have heard of irregularities in the assessment system. What if my marks are adversely affected?
Have faith in the system. There will always be rumours about unfair checking, but one cannot ignore the fact that results over all these years have more often than not, been fair.

n I think there is too much pressure and I can't cope with it.
Take professional help. If you feel that there is pressure and you are unable to handle it and your self-esteem is coming down and you are unable to cope, then you must consult a psychiatrist to help you tide over this phase.

n Everyone tells me to concentrate on my studies.
Don't stop enjoying life. One of the common mistakes an individual makes is to totally change his lifestyle. This is under the assumption that if he isolates himself from all leisure and fun times with friends and family and only study, then he will do better.

n How much sleep is required?
The human body requires an average of 8 hours of sleep per day. But there is no hard and fast rule. Each one of us has to understand our body rhythm and know by trial and error how many hours of sleep keeps us fit.

n What happens if we sleep less than what our body requires?
If you sleep less for a day or two your body copes up by taking more sleep over next two days. If continued for long then the body gets into what is known as sleep deprivation syndrome because it accumulates so many hours of Sleep Debt. Then you get symptoms of feeling tired and sleepy, headaches, body aches, poor digestion, inability to concentrate, irritability, short tempered ness etc

n Should I study in the morning or at night?
First understand whether you are an owl or a lark. IF you can get up early in the morning and feel fresh then you must sleep early and get up early and study. If on the other hand you can study late at night but cannot feel fresh when you get up early to study then you must sleep late after studying and get up later in the morning.

n How do you get a good night sleep?
Try to keep a fixed time every night for sleeping as far as possible. Avoid afternoon prolonged sleeping, a short nap may be helpful. One hour before bed-time avoid stimulating your sensory system by too much noise like loud music, too much TV, arguments or fights. Three hours before sleep time avoid taking any food or liquids, which contain caffeine, like aerated coal drinks, drinks containing chocolate.

n To keep awake for studying students drink lots of coffee. What is the harm?
Caffeine in small doses acts as a stimulant and keeps you awake, so a cup once a day may be Ok. Excessive coffee drinking gives side effects like tremors, fast pule rate, irritability, acidity and stomach pain. Coffee also causes addiction.

n Why exercise during exam time?
Most children will say they have no time for exercise during exam days. They are already stressed out with lack of time, how can they waste time in exercise? The fact is that exercise is all the more necessary during exam time because not only is it a “stress buster “ but also has many other health benefits needed to keep fit during exam.

n What does exercise do?
God has given us our body which is a perfect machine!. But as with any a machine to keep in good running condition, it requires maintenance or it will develop problems in various parts or rust due to disuse. Similarly if all our body parts are not moved effectively, as in exercise, the body parts will fail and then you will get physical problems like lack of stamina, excessive sleep, headache, muscle pains, fatigue etc. You will also get mental problems like feeling low or depressed, inability to concentrate, poor memory etc

n What are the various forms of exercise?
Aerobic exercise, running, jogging, swimming, specific aerobic exercises, strength training, lifting weights and working on machines are some examples. Resistance or strength training increases lean body-mass which includes muscles, these in turn burn more energy daily as compared to fat mass. More muscles mean more strength and also more calories burnt, so less fat on body. Strength training helps to tone muscles and improves endurance. It reduces risk of osteoporosis so makes our bones very strong. Exercise increases co-ordination and reduces risk of injuries resulting from weak muscles.

n How does exercise help?
Regular aerobic exercise (swimming, bicycling jogging) improves the function of our cardiovascular system. This makes the circulation better, the lungs process oxygen more effectively so you have less exertion. Heart pumps blood with fewer heart beats (the athletes pulse is always slow). It stimulates the growth of capillaries that increases blood supply hence better oxygenation to muscles. All this makes your body more efficient and gives you more endurance capacity giving you more stamina for working. You can sit longer hours without discomfort. This will make you study harder and better.

n How does exercise help you be better mentally?
Regular aerobic exercise releases some good chemicals in our body. These are called endorphins. These make you feel happy. They counter the effects of stress, depression and anxiety that all students suffer from during exam time. So after exercising you get a “Natural kick” which is longer lasting and safe unlike drugs or stimulants like caffeine. It also helps you in weight loss and that will make you feel good about your self.

n What are long-term benefits of exercise?
Regular exercise will not only help you during exam but later in life you will have longer life and less risk of obesity, high blood pressure, heart attacks, diabetes, cancer and mental depression.

n Why do adolescents feel hungry all the time?
The body demands more calories during adolescence. Boys require about 2800 calories and girls about 2200 per day. Teens who are big and tall and participate in lot of physical quire more.

DO NOT MISS BREAKFAST If you miss breakfast then by the time you have lunch nearly 10 -12 hours have gone by after your last meal. This means your blood sugar level has gone and you have nothing to provide your body with energy. This low blood sugar or hypoglycemia causes short-term memory problems, difficulty in concentration problem solving.

DO NOT HAVE A VERY HEAVY DINNER You will feel very heavy and sleepy and will not be able to study well.


Q.1: If a student fails in the pre Board examination conducted by the school, can he/she be detained from appearing in Class X or XII Board’s exam?

Ans. No, if he/she is otherwise eligible.

Q.2: Is it possible for a student who has failed in Science stream in Class XII to change subjects to pass at subsequent examination?

Ans. Yes, but with prior permission of the Board.

Q.3: What is the eligibility criteria for a student to appear as a private candidate in Board examination?

Ans. The Board prescribes following conditions under which a candidate can appear privately: -
I. Failed candidates
II. Teachers serving in educational institutions
III. Women candidates who are bonafide residents of NCT of Delhi and
IV. Physically handicapped students

Q.4: What is the procedure of appearing in additional subject?

Ans. An additional subject may be offered within 6 years of passing the examination of the Board. The subject should be provided in the scheme of studies prescribed by the Board.

Q.5: Is it compulsory for a student to repeat the practical examination also if he/she fails in theory?

Ans. The candidate has an option to appear for practical examination again or retain the previous year practical marks for two consecutive years.

Q.6: What are the exemptions provided in examinations to physically challenged and dyslexic candidates?

Ans. Dyslexic/spastic/physically handicapped students have the option of studying one compulsory language as against two and any four subjects from the following:
I. Mathematics, II. Science, III. Social Science, IV.2nd language
(Music, Painting, Home Science and Introductory Information Technology)
i. Additional one hour (60 minutes) for each paper is provided to the students
ii. Physiotherapy exercises are considered equivalent to Physical and Health
iii. Amanuensis is provided to such students.

Q.7: I wish to improve my performance in Chemistry and Maths. Is it possible and how?

Ans. A candidate who has passed Class X or XII examination of the Board may re-appear for improvement of performance in one or more subjects in the main examination in the succeeding year only. The candidate may appear privately; those re-appearing for whole examination can also appear as regular candidate if admitted by the school.
- For subjects involving practical work, if the candidate has passed the practical examination, he or she will be allowed to appear only in theory part.

Q.8: Does the Board provide any supplementary material for students preparing for X & XII examinations?

Ans. Yes, the Board publishes Sample Question Papers and marking Schemes in main subjects in Class X & XII which can be purchased from any of the Board’s offices.

Q.9: Are the questions of Sr. Sec. Exam. strictly based on NCERT books?

Ans.: NCERT books are recommended for studies as they cover the prescribed syllabus. It is, therefore, advisable to concentrate on these books.

Q.10: Is it compulsory to pass in theory and practical exams. separately?

Ans.: Yes, it is compulsory to pass separately in the subjects involving theory and practical in Class XII.

Q11: Is a student required to appear in all subjects in improvement examination?

Ans.: No, the student can appear in one or more than one subject(s) as per his/her choice. However, improvement exam. can be taken only in the successive year of passing Class X/XII exams.

Q.12: What are the kinds of questions asked in Physics, Chemistry and Biology and how should one attempt the questions?

Ans.: The Board publishes Sample Question papers in all the main subjects every year along with Marking Schemes. It is better to procure a copy of each publication. Board’s website can also be visited at cbse.nic.in

Q.13: Is there negative marking for exceeding word limit?

Ans.: No, the marks are not cut for exceeding the word limit. However, it is better to restrict to the specified word limit. This should be practiced at the time of revision, which will also help in completing the paper within the allotted time.

Q.14: How many sets of question papers are distributed in examination hall in Board’s examination?

Ans.: The Board prepares three sets of questions papers in all the main subjects having equal difficulty level.

Q.15: Is it possible to score 80% in Maths in Class X after studying from the NCERT books, latest CBSE Sample Question papers and other Sample Papers?

Ans.: Marks would entirely depend upon the preparation and performance during examination. It is, therefore, advisable to remain focused and do your best.

Q.16: Will a student lose marks if he/she opts for Hindi as a medium for writing +2 examination?

Ans.: Certainly not. The Board gives option of medium to the students to answer questions in Hindi or English and even in Urdu. The marks are deducted only in case of wrong answers.

Q.17: What are the changes in the pattern of Examination in Class XII this year?

Ans.: The changes in question paper design and weightages are mentioned in Sample Question Papers in each stream. A copy of Marking Scheme can also be bought from the Headquarter or Regional Office.

Q.18: If a student decides to drop one year, what will be the syllabus applicable for the next examination, the old or the new?

Ans.: The candidate will have to study the syllabus recommended for the year in which he/she plans to give the examination.

Q.19: What are the rules for condonation of attendance?

Ans. :I. A candidate must have 75% attendance as on 1st February of the year of examination. Shortage up to 15% may be condoned by the Chairman. Cases of candidates with attendance below 60% shall be considered for condonation of shortage of attendance only in exceptional circumstances like prolonged serious illness such as cancer, AIDS or T.B.
II Death of a parent
III. Authorized participation in sponsored tournaments and Sports meet of at least inter school level and NCC/NSS camps.

Q.20: Are marks deducted for missing steps in Maths?

Ans.: Yes, marks are deducted for missing steps. It will be better to get a copy of the Marking Scheme to know about the weightage and steps and practice accordingly.

Q.21: Is the candidate allowed to see the answer script in case the result is not as per the expectations?

Ans.: No. There is no provision of showing answer scripts. The candidate can apply for scrutiny, for reconfirmation of marks.

Q.22: If a candidate passes in the additional subject but fails in one of the main subjects, what will the result show?

Ans.: The candidate will be considered as having passed the examination in such a case. A language will replace a language only. For further details the scheme of examinations and bye-laws can be referred to.

Q.23: Is it compulsory to use ink pen for writing answers in Board exams?

Ans.: Always use blue or royal blue ink pen while writing the answers. Also try to write in neat and legible handwriting.

Q.24: How can one get good marks in Maths? Are there any guess papers published by the Board?

Ans.: The preparation in Maths essentially depends upon written practice and revising the entire syllabus. Try to solve each and every problem given in the exercises in NCERT textbook. The Board does not publish any guess papers. It will be better to practice from the Sample Question papers.

Q.25: Will the question paper of Maths be different than the two blue prints given in the Sample Question Paper for Class X?

Ans. Based on the same design any number of the question papers can be prepared. The paper setter may generate another blue print in addition to two blue prints included in the document.

Q.26: Will the examiner cut marks if the answers are not written in serial order?

Ans.: No marks are cut. However, it is advised that the answers should be written in correct serial order as far as possible.

Q. 27: What is the procedure followed in marking the answers?

Ans.: Each answer is divided into steps and marks are given in accordance to the weightage assigned for these steps. It is advised that a copy of Marking Scheme be procured to get a clear idea.

Q. 28: In Class X Board exam. can the answers to the questions written in random order?

Ans.: Answers to the questions can be written in random order as long answers are numbered correctly. However since the answer scripts of Science and Technology will be evaluated by two examiners, answer should be written section-wise. Within the section any order may follow.

Q. 29 Does poor handwriting affect performance in the Board exams? What is the correct speed rate to follow?

Ans.: Answers should be written in a hand which can be read easily by the examiner. Being neat and legible is important. There is no speed rate prescribed. It is better to divide time and plan answers while reading the question paper in the beginning.

Q. 30: If one gets good marks in the pre-boards what does it indicate? Will the marks in the Board also be good as well?

Answer: Getting good marks in the Pre-boards clearly indicates that one has prepared well. Being consistent in preparations will definitely fetch good marks in board exams as well.

Q. 31: Is it true that longer answers in Hindi fetch better marks, as opposed to English?

Ans.: The marks are not related to the length of the answers but to the relevant value points which must be covered both in Hindi as well as in English and even in other subjects.


India is the name given to the vast peninsula which the continent of Asia throws out to the south of the magnificent mountain ranges that stretch in a sword like curve across the southern border of Tibet. Shaped like an irregular quadrilateral, this large expanse of territory deserves the name of a subcontinent. Ancient Geographers referred to India as being "constituted with a four-fold conformation" (chatuh samasthana samsthitam), " on its South and West and East is the Great Ocean, and the Himavat range stretches along its north like the string of a bow". The name Himvat in the above passage refers not only to the snow capped ranges of the Himalayas but also to their less elevated offshoots -the Patkai, Lushai and Chittagong Hills in the east, and the Sulaiman and Kirthar ranges in the west. These go down to the Sea and separate India from the wooded valley of Irrawady, on the one hand, and the hilly tableland of Iran, on the other. The Himalayas standing tall in breathtaking splendor are radiant in myth and mystery. These, the youngest and tallest mountain ranges, feed the Ganga with never-ending streams of snow. The Himalayas are home to the people of Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. Mount Everest is the highest peak in the Himalayan ranges. And even as all Indian through the ages have considered the whole of the Himalayas as their property, with Shiva himself residing in those ranges, Mount Everest falls in Nepal's territory.
The Vindhya Mountains cut right across the country, from West to East, and form the boundary between North and South
India. India is also fortunate in possessing one of the world's most extensive and fertile lands, made up of the alluvial Soil brought down in the form of fine silt by the mighty rivers. Lying south of the Himalayas, these Great North Indian Plains consist of the Indus basin, Ganga-Brahmaputra basin, and the tributaries of these mighty river systems. To the south of the Great Plains of northern India lie the Great Plateau of Peninsular India, which is divided into two parts, viz., the Malwa Plateau and the Deccan Plateau.The Malwa plateau - bounded by the Aravalli hills in the northwest and the Vindhyas in the Vindhyas form the northern half of this peninsula. Chhota Nagpur region forms the northeastern part of this plateau and is the richest minerals producing region of India. The valley of the Narmada River forms the southern boundary of this plateau. The Deccan plateau extends from the Satpura hills in the north to Kanniyakumari, the southern most point in India, finally ending in the Indian Ocean.
Towards the west of this plateau lie the Western Ghats that comprise of the Sahyadri, the Nilgiri, the Annamalai and the Cardamom Hills. On the eastern side, this plateau merges into a layer of discontinuous low hills known as the Mahendra Giri hills, which comprise of the Eastern Ghats. Narrow coastal plains along the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal flank the Deccan Plateau, on its eastern and western sides, respectively. The Western coastal plains lie between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, further split into the northern Konkan Coast and the southern Malabar Coast. The eastern coastal plains, on the other hand lie between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal and like the western plains are divided into two parts - the Coromandel Coast as the southern part and the Northern Sircaras as the northern.
Towards the western half of
India lies a vast stretch of land that is divided, by the Aravalli mountains, into two separate units. The area west of the Aravalli comprises of the Thar Desert - made up of sand and interrupted by rocky hills and waterless valleys, this arid land, extend deep into Pakistan. The state of Gujarat lies to the east of this range and is one of the most prosperous regions in India. These mainland areas apart, India has two groups of islands - the Andaman and Nicobar in the Bay of Bengal and the Lakshadweep in the Arabian Sea. River System of IndiaThe Greeks applied the name 'India' to the country. It corresponds to the "Hi(n)du" of the old Persian epigraphs.Like "Sapta sindhavah" and "Hapta Hindu"- the appellations of the Aryan country in the Veda and the Vedinand - it is derived from Sindhu (Indus), the great river that constitutes the most imposing feature of that part of the sub-continent, which seems to have been the cradle of its earliest known civilizations.
Rising in southwestern Tibet, at an altitude of 16,000 feet, Indus enters the Indian Territory near Leh in Ladakh. The river has a total drainage area of about 4,50,000 square miles, of which 1,75,000 square miles lie in the Himalayan Mountains
and foothills.

Democracy Vs Dictatorship

Imagine the next time you step into the voting booth your ballot only lists one candidate to choose from. Or perhaps your ballot lists four candidates, but they are all from the Liberal party. Dictatorships are one party political systems that are ruled by one leader or an elite group of people under the principle of authoritarianism. Some feel that dictatorships are the most effective form of government because decisions are made quickly and extreme nationalism benefits the military and economy. These individuals value order, nationalism, and authority. However, these systems often result in violence, repression of the public, and few provisions for changes to the system. Democracies are multiparty political systems that rest on the principle of rule by the people. Most people that live in democracies have civil liberties1, and political rights2. Individuals who feel that multiparty systems are the best government value equality, accountability, and freedom. Nations that have multiparty political systems will meet the needs of the public better through the means of political equality, a higher standard of living3, and civil liberties. Dictatorships often occur when a nation is economically and politically unstable. An example of this is Napoleon’s coup d’ etat in 1799 France. In a system of authoritarian rule decisions are made efficiently because very few people are involved in the decision making process. The leader or elite group at the head of the government decides on new policies and economic measures, then makes sure that the public abides by them by using tactics of force and indoctrination. Dictatorial systems have helped nations recover from economic turmoil many times in the past. The extreme nationalism that is born from propaganda and government sponsored youth organizations encourages people to work harder for the benefit of their country. Newly motivated work forces easily meet their production goals. If the leader of a dictatorship is capable the country can rise to hold a great amount of international power. Building up the military is an important step to gain power. A strong military will discourage other countries from attacking and also discourage the citizens of the country from rebelling. The force of nationalism, and new laws that can be easily passed regarding education (such that every male of a certain age must serve time in the military) allow military strength of dictatorships to multiply. The Soviet Union experienced a dictatorial system from 1917 to 1985. Under the rule of Vladimir Lenin, and later Joseph Stalin, one political party attempted to control all aspects of political, economic, and social life. The people of the USSR endured rapid industrial development, victory in World War II, and improved literacy rates. They also experienced elements of force, indoctrination, controlled participation, limits on dissent, and a lack of the accountability of government. In 1917 Lenin initiated the Bolshevik seizure of power and became the first soviet government. Lenin established communist4 society in Russia before passing away shortly after (1924). Stalin, the general secretary for the communist party gradually gained power and by 1928 was in control of the government. Under Joseph Stalin’s leadership the USSR was transformed into a world power, and a totalitarian state. Lenin had introduced the New Economic Policy in 1921, which proposed the creation of a mixed economy. In this system the state controlled large industries but small scale enterprises and farming were run privately. By 1936 the NEP had helped The Soviet economy to recover to the levels it was at before WWI. Stalin introduced his famous 5 year plans, to develop industry further, and the NEP was abandoned for a communist economy. The first 5 year plan (1928-1932) expanded heavy industry such as steel making and mining. Private farming was eliminated, with much bloodshed, and collective farms were established. The second 5 year plan (1933-1937) began the development of natural resources in Siberia and the far east. It also further expanded heavy industry at the expense of consumer goods. Stalin’s third 5 year plan (1938-1941) directed funds to areas of defense. In WWII Nazi Germany invaded the USSR, creating an instant alliance between the USSR and two of the world’s greatest powers; Britain and the USA. The Soviet Union pushed the Germans out of its territory and Eastern Europe, thus accelerating the end of the war. Trade increased between USSR and the two other powers, and the Soviet has been recognized and commended for helping to end WWII. Another benefit of central planning was the massive educational effort that raised literacy rates in the USSR. The communist government wanted to develop a skilled and educated labor force. Millions of people learned to read and write, in an education system that centered on scientific training. In order to enforce communist policies the Soviet Union built a large militia5. The secret police (consisting of agents and informants) were used as an instrument of terror to ensure that the communist party stayed in power. The secret police kept foreigners and those who traveled abroad under close surveillance. They also censored the mail, and monitored telephone conversations. Indoctrination and censorship encouraged nationalism and spread the communist ideology. The government sponsored youth groups such as the “little octoberists”, and the communist ideology was taught in school. With only one newspaper and one radio station (both government owned) people had very little control over their own beliefs because they were constantly exposed to only one side of every issue. This excerpt is from the Soviet’s only newspaper, “Pravda6” . “Stalin is the architect of the tremendous creation called the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. he is the source of all life in the he soviet union. His thoughts set the whole mechanism of Soviet life in motion.” Glorification of a leader is common technique used in dictatorships to ensure that citizens are faithful and committed to the government in power. In the early 1920’s and 30’s people of the USSR were expected to vote publicly by raising their hands. This caused a very low voter turnout so a secret ballot system was instilled. All candidates (if their was more than one) were selected by the communist party, so the voting was quite meaningless since it lacked the element of real choice. Officials manipulated counts to make voter turnout appear higher than it actually was, and if one were to disagree with the choices listed on the ballot they were to mark the ballot publicly and be subject to the wrath of the secret police. The lack of accountability in the USSR was so shocking that anyone who observed it and still lives will be emotionally scarred forever. The “great purge” from 1936 - 1939, began with few show trials that symbolized fair justice but never provided enough real evidence to base a conviction on. These trials were for members of the government who had supposedly plotted against Joseph Stalin. Following these trials, the secret police purged all institutions (education, media, government) of possible threats to the communist party, and sent millions of people to forced labour camps. When this horror came to an end in 1939 it was too late for the millions of people who died, completely innocent of any crime. It is true that Stalin’s reign enabled many people to learn to read and write, but at what cost? If they were not killed in a labour camp, the point of having employability skills seems faint when every adult after 1938 was required to have a “labour book.” Without a labour book one could not be employed, and once a person way employed their labor book was kept with the employer. This way employees could not easily change jobs. Developing employability skills if you are not able to pressure the employment that truly interests you is a wasted effort. In the USSR political rights and political equality were merely a facade. Although the show of voting made it appear that people had the right to elect the leader of their choice, the public was not given the option of free choice. Also in the USSR speaking out against the government and dissenting was strogly forbidden and could result in exile or execution. Civil liberties were virtually non existent. People did not have the freedom to develop their own views and ideas because they were constantly being indoctrinated with the ideas of the government. If one were to exercise the freedom of assembly or demonstration in a dictatorial system they would be killed or imprisoned (Tienneman square in China). It is difficult to find exact numbers that help us determine the standerd of living in the USSR during Stalin’s regime. However, from the stories of the forced concentration camps and black market for food and other consumer goods anyone can deduct that the standard of living was low. Russia’s standard of living today emphasizes the effect that a previous authoritarian government can have on a nation. In Russia the adult literacy rate is quite impressive, 98%. The GDP per capita is very low $3050 (in US dollars). The average life expectancy is also low at 66.9 years, and approximately 2.6% of the population owns computers. In democratic systems the public decides what economic and social policies work best for them. Democracy originated in ancient Athens. Besides the fact that only men could vote ancient Athens exhibited a model direct democracy. On every issue each voter was able to freely vote. The Athenians choose from two main political parties, and no one person had any more power than another person. Decision making and decision enforcing were the duties of every citizen. Democracy is a logical concept. Since the public has to abide by the policies made by the government, they should be able to help make those decisions. The United States of America has been a democracy since it became a country. The system of government ensures that no branch of government (executive, legislative, or judicial) has more power than another branch. Each American voter votes to elect a president from the political party that has a platform most similar to his or her views. They also elect the senators and members of the house of representatives (who make up the legislative branch). The supreme court judges are not elected, but appointed for life by the president and senate in order to keep their interests pure. Most laws that are made in democratic systems reflect the views of the public. In the Us, any member of the House can introduce a piece of legislation. This illustrates how all members are equal and are given the right to represent the people from their state. The bill is printed and prepared so that all members of the government can understand the details of it. The bill will then be refereed to the appropriate committee by the House or Senate parliamentarian. The committee ensures that the bill meets with the guidelines of the constitution, and makes revisions and amendments to it. Now the committee of a whole7 debates and amends the bill but cannot technically pass it. Debate is limited in the committee by certain rules and opposing side have a scheduled amount of time to speak. The bill is also debated in the senate, without any time limit on how long The debate can run. If the House of Representatives and the senate pass the same bill it is then sent to the president. If the House and the senate pass different bills they are sent to the conference committee. The president signs the bill, making it become law. The president does have the power to veto legislation, but it is rarely used. This is because the chamber that provided the legislation has a right to overthrow the veto if 2/3 of the members present feel that they should do so. Also the congress has the power to impeach8 the president if the public feels he is not performing his job adequately. In America, every person over the age of 18 (who has not been convicted of a felony or declared mentally incompetent by a court) has the right to vote through the practice of secret ballot. People also have the right to speak out against the government and dissent freely. Civil liberties are guaranteed to the people in the constitution, and no legislation will be passed that violates any citizens civil liberties. If people feel their civil liberties have been violated they can take the case to various courts, who will make a fair ruling based on the constitution. Today the USA has a high standard of living compared to other countries. It is a major world power with a democratic system and a market economy. In 1997 the adult literacy rate was 95%, the GDP9 per capita was $29, 181 US dollars, the average life expectancy was 76 years, and approximately 37% of people owned computers. The individuals who believe that dictatorial systems are more efficient and beneficial than democracies have never experienced life in such a system, or have never been a victim of the elite. Dictatorships do not meet the needs of the public adequately, result in a lower standard of living than democracies, and often result in violence. For a new policy to be implemented in a democracy thousands of people do not have to die. This is because for the most part in democracies the policies that exist are the will of the people. Democratic systems have been very successful in the US, Canada, Sweden, and other countries. The freedom of choice is ultimately important, and since the public makes the industry in nations, they will choose what is best for the nation.

Sunday, March 22, 2009



Poem from prison

Everything changes, the wheel of the law turns without pause.
After the rain, good weather.
In the wink of an eye
The universe throws off its muddy cloths.
For ten thousand miles the landscape
Spreads out like a beautiful brocade.
Gentle sunshine. Light breezes. Smiling flowers,
Hang in the trees, amongst the sparkling leaves,
All the birds sing at once.
Men and animals rise up reborn.
What could be more natural?
After sorrow comes happiness.

Napalm Bombing in Vietnam

Sunday, March 8, 2009

Grade X 2008


1. Why did the British Government curtail the freedom of Press after 1857 in India?
2. Write the main contribution of Vaikkom Muhammad Basheer as a novelist in Malayalam
literature 1
3. Explain the most important use of the relief feature of India occupying the largest
percentage of the total land area. 1
4. Why did Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru proclaim the river dams as the temples of modern
India? Explain the main reason. 1
5. Write one point of similarity and one point of difference between magnetite and hematite ½ + ½ = 1
6. Mention any two ways in which caste has influenced politics in India. ½ + ½ = 1
7. Name any two Asian countries in which there was conflict between two linguistic and ethnic
groups. ½ + ½ = 1
8. State one reform for making Indian democracy more effective. 1
9. Define per capita income. 1
10. Name any two officials who constitute the District Level Disaster management Committee. ½+ ½ = 1
11. State one aim of the National Cadet Corps. 1
Below are given three groups A,B, & C of questions 11 and 12. Select any one
group for answering these two questions.
Q11 Analyse the three measures adopted by the producers in India to expand the market for
their goods in the 19th century. 3x1=3
Q.12 Explain three types of movements or ‘flow’ within the international economic exchange
in the 19th century in the context to world economy. 3x1=3
Q.11 Describe the position of women in Britain in the 19th century in three points. 3x1=3
Q.12 “The indentured labour gave rise to a new culture in the Carribean” Justify this Statement
with three examples. 3x1=3
Q.11 The First world war created dramatically a new situation for Indian Industries. Analyse
how this happened by giving three situations. 3x1=3
Q12 Do you agree or disagree that the process of Urbanization in the city of London provided
more disappointments than opportunities. Give three reasons in support of your answer.
Q.13.1Read the following extract taken from the textbook and answer the questions that follow:
In 1926, Begum Rokeya Sakhawat Hossien, a noted educationist and literary figure.
strongly condemned men for withholding education from women in the name of religion
as she addressed the Bengal Women’s Education Conference:
The opponents of female education say that women will become unruly.....Fie! they call
them selves Muslims and yet go against the basic tenets of Islam which gives women an
equal right to education. If men are not led astray once educated, why should women?
(a) Explain how Begum Rokeya Sakhawat Hossein asserts women’s right to education?
(b) What was the impact of printed books on women in India in the 19th century.? 1+2=3
Q.13.2 Novels created a sense of social awareness in India. Analyse giving one example.
Q.14 Study the above map and answer the following questions:
(14.1) Name the three states each of which has two major sea ports.
(14.2) Name any one port of each of these states 1½ + 1½=3
For Blind students only in lieu of question number 14
Name the three states, each of which has two major sea ports and also name any one
port of each of these states. 1½ + 1½ = 3
Q.15 Examine with the help of three examples, how dignity and freedom of citizens are best
guaranteed in a democracy.
Q.16 Analyse the meaning of right to choose provided under Consumer Protection Act.
Q.17 State any two causes of tsunami and explain any two measures you would suggest to the
people living in coastal areas for safeguarding themselves during a tsunami.
Q.18 “During any major disaster , the communication links are completely disrupted.
Therefore it is crucially important to have alternative communication systems”. Justify
the statement by three suitable arguments 3x1=3
Q.19.1Give any four features of the Ho Chi Minh Trail in the Vietnamese war against the U.S.
Q.19.2 Describe four stages of unification of Germany. 4x1=4
Q.20 What were the reasons for the launching of the Non-cooperation movement? What was
Gandhiji’s idea behind launching it as stated in his book Hind Swaraj? 2+2=4
Q.21 Describe four important characteristics of rice cultivation in India. 4x1=4
Q.22 Which factor plays the most dominant role in the ideal location of an industry? Explain
any three reasons in support of this factor. 1+3=4
Q.23 With the help of two examples explain how social divisions have affected politics.
Q.24 Describe any four measures taken to decentralize power in India 4x1=4
Q.25 “Political parties play a major role in democracy.” Give four points to justify this statement.
Q.26 The following table shows the sources of credit for rural households in India in 2003
Source Share
Money lenders 30%
Cooperative societies 27%
Commercial banks 25%
Others (traders, relatives etc) 18%
On the basis of the above table answer the following questions:
(26.1) What is the share of formal sector in the total credit?
(26.2) Suggest two measures for improving the share of formal sector in total credit.
(26.3) Why is money lender still the largest single source of credit? 1+2+1=4
Q.27 Give the meaning of tertiary sector. State any three factors that have contributed to the
growth of this sector. 1+3=4
Q.28 Why did the Indian government put barriers to foreign trade and foreign investment after
Q.29.1 After the congress of vienna in 1815 a series of states were set up in Europe. Four of
them are shown in the given outline map of Europe by number 1 to 4. Identify these
states and write their correct names on the lines marked in the map. 4x½=2
Q.29.2 4 countries of Indo-China before 1974 are shown on a map of Asia by four different
shades A, B, C & D. Identify these countries and write their correct names on the lines
marked against A, B, C & D in the map.
Q.29. 1
Q.29. 2
The following question is only for blind candidates in lieu of Q.no 29
Name the four European powers which met at Vienna in 1815 to draw up a settlement
for Europe.
Q.(30.1) Eight features with serial No. 1 to 8 are marked on the given outline political map of
India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct
names on the lines marked in the map:
1. Type of soil; 2. Leading producer of coffee; 3. Eastern terminal city of
East-West corridor; 4. A coal mine; 5. A river dam; 6. A steel plant;
7. Silk textile centre and 8. International Airport 8x½=4
Q.(30.2) Locate and label the following on the given outline political map of India:
(i) An iron and steel plant located in Chhattisgarh.
(ii) Nuclear Power plant in Tamil Nadu.
(iii) Software Technology park in Jammu & Kashmir
(iv) A sea port in Andhra Pradesh 4x1=4
For Blind students only in lieu of question no (30)
1. Name the soil type known for cotton cultivation.
2. Name the iron and steel plant located in chattisgarh.
3. Which Nuclear Power Plant is located in Tamil Nadu?
4. What is the name of the software Technology park located in Jammu&Kashmir.
5. Name the state which is the leading producer of coffee.
6. Name the eastern terminal city of the East-West corridor.
7. Name the important silk textile centre in eastern Uttar Pradesh
8. Name the international Airport in Punjab. 8x½=4


Time Allowed : 3 Hours Max. Marks : 80
1. There are 30 questions in all. All questions comulsory.
2. Marks for each question are indicated against the question.
3. Questions from serial number 1 to 10 are 1mark questions.
Answer of these questions may be from one word to one sentence.
4. Questions from serial number11 to 18 are 3 marks questions.
Answer of these questions should not exceed 20 words each.
5. Questions from serial number 19 to 28 are 4marks questions
Answer of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
6. Question No. 29 and 30 are map questions. Attach the maps inside your answer book.
Q.1 State the two main principles of Gandhiji’s method of national struggle? 1
Q.2 Why is mineral conservation very essential for sustainable development? 1
Q.3 What is the upper limit of size of financial investment which separates a
small scale industry from a large scale industry in India? 1
Q.4 How does terrace cultivation restrict soil erosion in mountainous regions. 1
Q.5 Name the conflicting groups of people in SriLanka. ½ + ½ = 1
Q.6 Explain the term feminist movements. 1
Q.7 Why is democracy a better form of government? Give any two reasons. ½ + ½ = 1
Q.8 Why is per capita income of different countries calculated in dollars and
not in their own currencies by the World Bank? 1
Q.9 Name the nodal ministry which coordinates all disaster management
activities except drought. 1
Q.10 Under which circumstances do the Indian armed forces take on the
responsibility of managing disasters? 1
Q.11 Read the following extract from the text book and answer the questions that follow:
The Independence Day Pledge, 26 Jan. 1930 : We believe that it is inalienable right of
the Indian people, as of any other people, to have freedom and to enjoy the fruits of their
toil and have the necessities of life, so that they may have full opportunities of growth. We
believe also that if any government deprives a people of these rights and oppresses them,
the people have a further right to alter it or to abolish it. The British Government in India
has not only deprived the Indian people of their freedom but has based itself on the
exploitation of the masses, and has ruined India economically, politically, culturally and
spiritually. We believe, therefore, that India must severe the British connection and attain
Purna Swaraj or Complete Independence.
(a) In what two ways was the British rule in India oppressive?
(b) Explain the immediate effects of the Lahore Session of the Congress on
the Indian National Movements. 1+2=3
Below are given three Groups A, B & C of questions 12 and 13. Select any one
group for answering these two questions.
Q.12 Explain three major features of global agricultural economy that had
taken shape towards the close of the 19th century. 3x1=3
Q.12 Explain any three reasons as to why the technological changes were
taking place at a slower pace in the factories in the 19th century. 3x1=3
Q.12 Describe in an three points the Social changes in the city of London
with respect to entertainment and leisure of the people due to
industrialization. 3x1=3
Q.13 “The beginning of the 19th century saw decline of Indian textile
industries”. Justify the statement with 3 valid arguments 3x1=3
Q.12 Why is Bombay a city of dreams for some, while a city of
hardship for others? 3
Q.13 Examine why the Great Depression
was a catastrophic event for the
U.S.A. 3
Q.14 Carefully observe the given picture
and answer the questions that
(14.1) Suggest a suitable title for the given picture.
(14.2) Explain any two reasons which are responsible for making this mode of
transport very popular is north eastern states of India. 1+2=3
The following question is for the blind candidates only in lieu of Q.No.14.
In which region of India is air transport more popular than the other means of
transport? Give two reasons. 1+2=3
Q.15 Examine three challenges of democracy.
Q.16 Explain with three suitable examples the meaning of “right to be informed”
as provided under Consumer Protection Act. 3
Q.17 “The main Goal of First Aid is to restore and maintain vital functions
of an injured person”. Explain the statement with three suitable examples. 3x1=3
Q.18 Study the above diagram showing three types of roof designs and answer
the following question :
(18.1) Write the appropriate names of roof designs A, B and C.
(18.2) Which type of roof design gets the lowest uplift of wind force and why? 1½+1½=3
Question for Blind Candidates in lieu of Question 18
Which type of roof design gets the lowest uplift of wind force and why? 3
Q.19 What were the differences of opinion between the two groups in Vietnam regarding the
introduction of French Education System? 4
How did the Balkan region become a source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871
Explain four points
Q.20 Describe how the works of Munshi Prem Chand reflect the social conditions of the
Indian Society in the early 20th century. 4
Describe any two popular themes on which women writers in England
wrote in the 19th century. 4
Q.21 Explain any four features of the comprehensive land development
programmes initiated in our country during 1980s and 1990s. 4x1=4
Q.22 Describe any four traditional methods of rainwater harvesting adopted
in different parts of India. 4x1=4
(A) (B) (C)
Q.23 Explain any four forms of power sharing. 4
Q.24 Describe any two features each of sectional and promotional pressure
groups in India. 2+2=4
Q.25 “Women in India continue to to be discriminated leading to their
unequal position in the society” Justify this statement with
four suitable examples. 4x1=4
Q.26 Name two formal and two informal sources of rural credit in India.
State any two advantages of formal source of credit. 1+1+2=4
Q.27 Why has tertiary sector become the largest producer in India over
the last 30 years? Explain four reasons. 4x1=4
Q.28 Analyse one good and one bad effect of globalisation in India. 2+2=4
29 Four centres of Indian National Movement are shown on the political
map of India by number 1 to 4. identify these centres & write their correct
names on the lines marked in the map. 4x½=2
For Blind Candidates only in lieu of question 29
Name the four prominent centres of Indian national movement.
(30.1) In the given outline political map of India, eight geographical features
A.B.C.D.E.F.G and H. are marked. Identify these features with the
help of map key and write their correct names on the lines marked
against each in the map. (8x½=4)
Q.(30.2) On the given outline political map of India locate and label the following
with appropriate symbols: 4x1=4
(i) The dam built on Chenab river.
(ii) The software technological park located in Madhya Pradesh.
(iii) The Southern most major seaport of India.
(iv) Iron and steel plant in Orissa.